The town of Cayuga was originally founded in 1827 as Eugene Station, and incorporated as Cayuga in 1891. It had a population of 1,162 as of the 2010 census.
Cayuga is located approximately 130 miles south of Chicago, 30 miles north of Terre Haute (home to the Indiana State University), and 70 miles west of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indiana Route 63 runs past the east end of the town. Students in Cayuga attend North Vermilion Schools.